Topic: Biotechnology Principles and Processes (Test 1)



Topic: Biotechnology Principles and Processes
Q.1
The techniques of using live organisms of enzymes from organism to produce products and processes useful to human is called
A. Biotechnology
B. Mutation
C. Regeneration
D. Hybridization
Answer : Option A
Explaination / Solution:

Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use".

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Q.2
Protein encoding gene expressed in heterologous host is called as
A. Peptones
B. Selectable marker
C. Recombinant protein
D. Tertiary proteins
Answer : Option C
Explaination / Solution:

Recombinant Protein is a protein encoded by a gene — recombinant DNA — that has been cloned in a system that supports expression of the gene and translation of messenger RNA (see expression system). Modification of the gene by recombinant DNA technology can lead to expression of a mutant protein. Protein encoding genes are commonly described as structural or regulatory. Structural gene encodes enzymes and structural protein.

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Q.3
Host cell membrane can be made permeable by
A. Tollen’s reagent
B. CaCl2
C. Ammonium Carbonate
D. Zinc
Answer : Option B
Explaination / Solution:

CaCl2 can be used to make the bacterial cell a permeable cell, and by introducing these cells (after CaCl2 being placed into the mixture of bacterial cells), a plasmid for ampicillin resistance can be transformed into the bacteria. The standard method for making the bacteria permeable to DNA involves treatment with calcium ions.

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Q.4
Brief exposure of cells to an electric field also allow the bacteria to take up DNA and this process is called as
A. Apheresis
B. Electroporation
C. Electrophoresis
D. Electrolysis
Answer : Option B
Explaination / Solution:

Electroporation, or electropermeabilization, is a microbiology technique in which an electrical field is applied to cells in order to increase the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing chemicals, drugs, or DNA to be introduced into the cell.

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Q.5
EtBr fluoresces at the wavelength
A. 400 nm
B. 254 nm
C. 340 nm
D. 500 nm
Answer : Option B
Explaination / Solution:

Ethidium bromide is an intercalating agent commonly used as a fluorescent tag (nucleic acid stain) in molecular biology laboratories for techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis. It is commonly abbreviated as "EtBr", which is also an abbreviation for bromoethane. When exposed to ultraviolet light, it will fluoresce with an orange colour, intensifying almost 20-fold after binding to DNA. It fluoresces at the wavelength at 254 nm.

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Q.6
Phage is a
A. Virus that infects bacteria
B. Fungi
C. Virion
D. Viroids
Answer : Option A
Explaination / Solution:

Phage is a virus that infects bacteria. Such viruses transfer their genetic materials into host bacteria and using the bacterial machinery increase in number and multiply rapidly to kill host cells.

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Q.7
Plasmid is a
A. Phage
B. Antibiotic resistant gene
C. Selectable marker
D. Extra chromosomal DNA
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:

Plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. Plasmid is most commonly found in bacteria as small circular, double stranded DNA molecule.

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Q.8
The goi is able to multiply in the bacterial cell because of
A. Ori in the plasmid
B. The short length of the chromosome
C. Antibiotic resistant gene
D. Prokaryotic bacterial cell
Answer : Option A
Explaination / Solution:

The goi (gene of interest) is able to multiply in bacterial cell because of Ori (Origin of replication)in the plasmid of bacterial cell. Ori is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.

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Q.9
The technique used to produce large number of genetically identical offspring is called as
A. Cloning
B. PCR
C. Northern Blotting
D. Southern Blotting
Answer : Option A
Explaination / Solution:

Cloning is the production of an exact copy of an animal by means of asexual reproduction. Any two animals which contain exactly the same genes are called genetically identical. An animal which is genetically identical to its parents is called clone. The cloning of a large animal was successfully done for the first time by Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Edinburg. They cloned a sheep named Dolly from its parent sheep called Finn Dorest sheep.

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Q.10
Lysozyme kills bacteria by destroying
A. Ori
B. Cell membrane
C. Plasmid
D. Cell wall
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:

Lysozyme is capable of breaking the chemical bonds in the outer cell wall of the bacteria. Bacterial cell walls contain a layer of peptidoglycan, which is the specific site that lysozyme targets. The peptidoglycan layer contains alternating molecules called N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid. These molecules form a strong glycan chain that act as the backbone for the cell wall. The link between the N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid is cleaved by lysozyme. Once this chain is broken by lysozyme, it results in bacterial death.

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