The horse has played a little known but very important role in the field of medicine. Horses were injected with toxins of diseases until their blood built up immunities. Then a serum was made from their blood. Serums to fight with diphtheria and tetanus were developed this way.
It can be inferred from the passage that horses were

**A. ** given immunity to diseases

**B. ** generally quite immune to diseases

**C. ** given medicines to fight toxins

**D. ** given diphtheria and tetanus serums

**Answer : ****Option B**

**Explaination / Solution: **

Option B fits the sentence, as they built up immunities which helped humans create serums from their blood.

Option B fits the sentence, as they built up immunities which helped humans create serums from their blood.

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The logic function implemented by the circuit below is (ground implies logic 0)

**A. ** F = AND (P, Q)

**B. ** F = OR (P, Q)

**C. ** F = X NOR (P, Q)

**D. ** F = X OR (P, Q)

**Answer : ****Option D**

**Explaination / Solution: **

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The circuit below implements a filter between the input current ii and the
output voltage v_{0}. Assume that the opamp is ideal. The filter implemented is a

**A. ** low pass filter

**B. ** band pass filter

**C. ** band stop filter

**D. ** high pass filter

**Answer : ****Option D**

**Explaination / Solution: **

From diagram we can write

From diagram we can write

Transfer function

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In the circuit shown below, for the MOS transistors, and
the threshold voltage V_{T} = 1 V. The voltage V_{x} at the source of the upper
transistor is

**A. ** 1 V

**B. ** 2 V

**C. ** 3 V

**D. ** 3.67 V

**Answer : ****Option C**

**Explaination / Solution: **

Given circuit is shown below.

Given circuit is shown below.

For transistor M_{2},

Since thus M2 is in saturation.
By assuming M1 to be in saturation we have

Taking positive root,

Thus our assumption is true and V_{x} = 3 V.

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The bias current I_{DC} through the diodes is

The current flows in the circuit if all the diodes are forward biased. In forward biased there will be 0 7. V drop across each diode.

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A transmission line of characteristic impedance 50 W is terminated in a load
impedance Z_{L}. The VSWR of the line is measured as 5 and the first of the
voltage maxima in the line is observed at a distance of λ/4 from the load. The
value of Z_{L} is

**A. ** 1Ω

**B. ** 250Ω

**C. ** (19.23 + j46.15)Ω

**D. ** (19.23 - j46.15)Ω

**Answer : ****Option A**

**Explaination / Solution: **

Since voltage maxima is observed at a distance of λ/4 from the load and we know that the separation between one maxima and minima equals to λ/4 so voltage minima will be observed at the load, Therefore load can not be complex it must be pure resistive.

Since voltage maxima is observed at a distance of λ/4 from the load and we know that the separation between one maxima and minima equals to λ/4 so voltage minima will be observed at the load, Therefore load can not be complex it must be pure resistive.

also R_{L} = R_{0}/s (since voltage maxima is formed at the load)

R_{L }= (50/5)Ω

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A four-phase and an eight-phase signal constellation are shown in the figure
below.

**A. ** 11.90 dB

**B. ** 8.73 dB

**C. ** 6.79 dB

**D. ** 5.33 dB

**Answer : ****Option D**

**Explaination / Solution: **

Here P_{e} for 4 PSK and 8 PSK is same because P_{e} depends on d . Since P_{e} is same,
d is same for 4 PSK and 8 PSK.

Assuming high SNR and that all signals are equally probable, the additional
average transmitted signal energy required by the 8-PSK signal to achieve the
same error probability as the 4-PSK signal is

Here P

Additional Power SNR

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Two systems H_{1}(Z) and H_{2}(Z) are connected in cascade as shown below. The
overall output y(n) is the same as the input x(n) with a one unit delay. The
transfer function of the second system H_{2}(Z)is

**A. **

**B. **

**C. **

**D. **

**Answer : ****Option B**

**Explaination / Solution: **

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An input is applied to an LTI system with
impulse response h(t) = u(t). The output is

**A. ** [1 - exp (-2t)] u(t) + u(t + 6)
**B. ** [1 - exp (-2t)] u(t) + u(t - 6)

**C. ** 0.5 [1 - exp (-2t)] u(t) + u(t + 6)

**D. ** 0.5 [1 - exp (-2t)] u(t) + u(t - 6)

**Answer : ****Option D**

**Explaination / Solution: **

and h(t) = u(t)

and h(t) = u(t)

Taking Laplace Transform we get

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The circuit shown below is driven by a sinusoidal input V_{i} = V_{p}cos(t/RC). The
steady state output vo

**A. ** (V_{p}/3)cos(t/RC)

**B. ** (V_{p}/3)sin(t/RC)

**C. ** (V_{p}/2)cos(t/RC)

**D. ** (V_{p}/2)sin(t/RC)

**Answer : ****Option A**

**Explaination / Solution: **

parallel combination of R and C equivalent impedance is

parallel combination of R and C equivalent impedance is

Transfer function can be written as

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