# Comprehension (Test 5)

## Upsc Civil Services Entrance Exams : General Studies Test

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Comprehension
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Q.1
Modern warfare has changed from large scale clashes of armies to suppression of civilian populations. Chemical agents that do their work silently appear to be suited to such warfare; and regretfully, there exist people in military establishments who think that chemical agents are useful tools for their cause. Which of the following statements best sums up the meaning of the above passage:
A. Modern warfare has resulted in civil strife.
B. Chemical agents are useful in modern warfare.
C. Use of chemical agents in warfare would be undesirable
D. People in military establishment like to use agents in war
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.

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Q.2
Based on the given statements, select the most appropriate option to solve the given question What will be the total weight of 10 poles each of same weight? Statements (I) One fourth of the weight of a pole is 15kg. (II) The total weight of these poles is 160 kg more than the total weight of two poles
A. Statement I alone is not sufficient
B. Statement II alone is not sufficient
C. Either I or II alone is sufficient
D. Both statements I and II together are not sufficient.
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.

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Q.3
“If you are looking for a history of India, or for an account of the rise and fall of the British Raj, or for the reason of the cleaving of the subcontinent into two mutually antagonistic parts and the effects this mutilation will have in the respective sections, and ultimately on Asia, you will not find it in these pages; for though I have spent a lifetime in the country, I lived too near the seat of events, and was too intimately associated with the actors, to get the perspective needed for the impartial recording of these matters.” Which of the following closest in meaning to 'cleaving'?
A. Deteriorating
B. Arguing
C. Departing
D. Splitting
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.

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Q.4

State Bank of India (or SBI) is India’s largest public sector bank, and a Fortune 500 company. It has now branched into various financial services, and is a government-owned corporation headquartered out of Mumbai. As of 2014-15, SBI had assets worth Rs. 20,480 billion and was ranked 232rd on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world’s biggest corporations as of 2016.SBI traces its roots back to 1806, making it the oldest commercial bank in the Indian subcontinent. The State Bank of India as it is today has been in existence since 1956. As on date, it has a market share of over a whopping 20 percent in deposits and loans among Indian commercial banks.SBI offers a range of banking products and services through its extensive branch network, which includes products targeted at resident Indians as well as non-resident Indians (or NRIs).In addition to its five associate banks, the SBI also operates in the non-banking sphere which includes credit cards, life and general insurance, funds management and capital markets among others.
What sets them apart from competition is the sheer reach that SBI offers, reaching out to potential home owners in semi-urban and rural areas in addition to metropolitan cities. Further, in keeping with the rapid technological development in the banking and financial services (BFSI) sector, the SBI has expanded its reach by offering services at the click of a button.SBI has a wide reach that is not spread only domestically but as well as in the overseas market. There are 14 regional hubs and over 57 zonal offices located in India. The number of bank branches has crossed 18,354 in India itself, and as of 2014-15, the Bank had 191 offices spread across 36 countries worldwide. It also operates several foreign subsidies or affiliates.When it comes to home loans, SBI offers various products, and all of these product offerings can be categorised as under:Home loans, which include options for new homes, resale (or pre-owned) homes, as well as construction of a house. It provides Loan for Earnest Money Deposit, which is to help individuals finance their requirements towards earnest money to book residential plots/ built-up housing uses, properties being sold by government housing agencies an urban development authorities and housing boards. Further, this loan can be repaid through the proceeds of the housing loan availed of from SBI.Takeover of home loans, which is a balance transfer facility to shift your existing home loan from scheduled commercial banks, or private and foreign banks and even housing finance companies (registered with the National Housing Bank) to SBI.Tribal Plus Scheme, which is a special housing finance scheme for the hill/ tribal areas of North East India and areas around Chandigarh, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna and Bhubaneswar.HerGhar, loans exclusively for women home owners, offered at a concessional interest rate. FlexiPay Home Loan Scheme, which is targeted at young working professionals to ease the financial burden by offering attractive repayment options.In addition the SBI also caters to the NRI audience with a selection of housing loan product offerings.In keeping with the tradition of employing the latest technological advances, you can apply for a housing loan both at a SBI branch and online as well. SBI also has digital branches known as SBI InTouch, which offer an instant loan facility for home loans, among other products and services. Rewarding individuals for availing of a home loan, SBI has an attractive rewards programme called the State Bank Rewardz, which offers reward points as part of its Group Loyalty Programme. These points can then be redeemed upon accrual for various products and services, both offline as well as online.

If given a chance why would one prefer SBI for home loans?
A. Because it is the oldest bank of India.
B. Because it benefits both residents and non-residents of India making it useful even if u move out of the country.
C. Because it provides concession in the interest rates.
D. It offers an instant loan facility for home loans, among other products and services and also rewards individuals for availing a home loan.
E. It is a special housing finance scheme for the hill/ tribal areas of North East India
Explaination / Solution:

The deciding factors while taking a home loan from any bank depend on its interest rates, hassle-free availability and benefits that can be obtained from it. These can be inferred from the last few lines of the passage. Option D describes it all so it is the most suitable response.

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Q.5
Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answers the questions that follow.

Dine on a steady diet of books like The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East or When China Rules the World, and it's easy to think that the future belongs to Asia. As one prominent herald of the region's rise put it, 'We are entering a new era of world history: the end of Western domination and the arrival of the Asian century.'
Sustained, rapid economic growth since World War 2 has undeniably boosted the region's economic output and military capabilities. But it's a gross exaggeration to say that Asia will emerge as the world's predominant power player. At most, Asia's rise will lead to the arrival of a multi-polar world, not another unipolar one.
Asia is nowhere near closing its economic and military gap with the West. The region produces roughly 30 percent of global economic output, but because of its huge population, its Per Capita GDP is only \$5,800, compared with \$48,000 in the United States. Asian countries are furiously upgrading their militaries, but their combined military spending in 2008 was still only a third that of the United States. Even at current torrid rates of growth, it will take the average Asian 77 years to reach the income of the average American. The Chinese need 47 years. For Indians, the figure is 123 years. And Asia's combined military budget won't equal that of the United States for 72 years.
In any case, it is meaningless to talk about Asia as a single entity of power, now or in the future. Far more likely is that the fast ascent of one regional player will be greeted with alarm by its closest neighbours. Asian history is replete with examples of competition for power and even military conflict among its big players. China and Japan have fought repeatedly over Korea; the Soviet Union teamed up with India and Vietnam to check China, while China supported Pakistan to counterbalance India. Already, China's recent rise has pushed Japan and India closer together. If Asia is becoming the world's centre of geopolitical gravity, it's a murky middle indeed.
Those who think Asia's gains in hard power will inevitably lead to its geopolitical dominance might also want to look at another crucial ingredient of clout: ideas. Pax Americana was made possible not only by the overwhelming economic and military might of the United States but also by a set of visionary ideas: free trade, Wilsonian liberalism, and multilateral institutions. Although Asia today may have the world's most dynamic economies, it does not seem to play an equally inspiring role as a thought leader. The big idea animating Asians now is empowerment; Asians rightly feel proud that they are making a new industrial revolution. But self-confidence is not an ideology, and the much-touted Asian model of development does not seem to be an exportable product.

In the passage, the term 'thought leadership' is meant to be which of the following?
A. The presence of a cohesive identity that would enable the creation of a geopolitical superpower.
B. A Renaissance in scientific thought, culture and the arts in the Asian continent.
C. A visionary, humanistic and broad ideology that serves as a strong factor in geopolitical dominance.
D. A liberal, universal ideology that would bring the Asian continent into the 'free world' and help it gain respect internationally.
E. Other than given options
Explaination / Solution:

'Thought leadership' as described in the concluding paragraph does lead to the formation of a cohesive, single identity, but by itself does not mean such an identity. So [a] is wrong. [b] is incorrect as it finds no mention in the passage, and nor is it implied. [d] is similarly out of context as far as the part about 'coming into the free world' is concerned. But the presence of a visionary and broad ideology finds mention as a major factor, in the last paragraph. Hence, [c].

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Q.6
Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

The concept of ‘Corporate Governance’ and ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ are two concepts that have been developed by western economies. A company which is well managed and governed is successful in the sense that it fulfils the aims of all its stakeholders and grows with sustainability. Such an organization should be able to fulfil its obligation towards the society at large and in the process be able to help in sustaining its progress as well as progress of the economy as a whole. These concepts have become all the more relevant in developing and emerging economies and have spread across all sectors. Financial institutions and banks are spear headers of economic development in emerging economies. The onus of capital accumulation, in view of a low savings rate, along with mobilization of capital into productive and priority sectors of the economy, lies on the banks and financial institutions. These institutions thus play a dual role in prevalence of good governance norms and ensuring that the society gets its due. On one hand, banks and financial institutions must practice good governance norms as well as fulfil their obligations towards society by practicing good CSR, whilst they should ensure that the large corporations do the same by virtue of being large investors in these corporations.
The issue of relationship or complementarity of Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility has been often discussed. The concept of ‘Corporate Governance’ essentially points towards ethical functioning of a corporation whereby in the process of achievement of the goal of profit maximization, the rights and interests of all the stakeholders of the corporation should be protected.
Corporate Social responsibility essentially consists of or refers to actions of a corporation which benefits the society in general, an external stake holder of the corporation and it may contradict with the interests of one or more internal stakeholders. However, it is not essential that the interests may necessarily contradict. It has been widely observed that successful corporations generally give it back to the society as they continue to benefit from it.
The practice of good governance norms in banks is essential as it directs and leads economic growth as well as economic development in an economy. The banks and other financial institutions, basically function for the benefit of the society, hence the practice of CSR activities by banks assumes added significance. CSR practices are not only for external stake holders of an organization, but it embodies many aspects like employee relations, diversity, human right activities, non-practice of harmful policies, compensation policies practiced by organization etc. The CSR activities also help in brand building of organizations, which is an important aspect for banks and financial institutions as well in view of increasing competition in this sector.

Which of the following statements can be inferred from the given passage?
(i) Banks and financial institutions are capable to exert pressure on the corporations to practice good CSR
(ii) CSR practices erodes the profitability of the corporations
(iii) CSR is a mutually benefitting concept for corporations and the society
A. Only (i)
B. Only (ii)
C. Only (iii)
D. Both (i) and (ii)
E. Both (i) and (iii)
Explaination / Solution:

Option (i) can be inferred from these lines of the passage, “On one hand, banks and financial institutions must practice good governance norms as well as fulfil their obligations towards society by practicing good CSR, whilst they should ensure that the large corporations do the same by virtue of being large investors in these corporations.”
Option (ii) cannot be inferred from the given passage.
Option (iii) can be inferred from these lines of the passage, “Such an organization should be able to fulfil its obligation towards the society at large and in the process be able to help in sustaining its progress as well as progress of the economy as a whole.”

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Q.7
Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

The World Bank’s agreement with the India-led International Solar Alliance (ISA) to help it mobilise a trillion dollars in investments by 2030 and its billion-dollar programme to support Indian initiatives for expanded solar generation are significant steps in the global transition to a clean energy pathway. While the cost of solar power has been declining, one of the biggest obstacles to a scale-up in developing countries has been the high cost of finance for photovoltaic projects. That problem can be addressed by the ISA through the World Bank partnership, as the agreement will help develop financing instruments, reduce hedging costs and currency risks, and enable technology transfer. India has raised its ambitions five-fold since the time it launched the National Solar Mission, and the target now is an installed capacity of 100 gigawatts by 2022 out of a total of 175 GW from all renewables. Strong policy support is also necessary to improve domestic manufacture of solar cells and panels, which has remained unattractive because cheap imports are available. India’s efforts have also suffered a setback, with the adverse WTO ruling against the stipulation of a prescribed level of domestic content for solar projects. Developing a strong solar manufacturing industry is essential for sustained economic growth, and to connect those who never had the boon of electricity.
Support from the World Bank for large-scale and rooftop solar deployments, innovative and hybrid technologies, and storage and transmission lines presents an opportunity for India to go the German way and achieve energiewende, or energy transition. For instance, the \$625-million grid-connected rooftop solar fund could help strengthen State-level programmes for net metering. A transparent regime that enables individuals and communities to plug into the grid without bureaucratic hurdles would unlock small-scale private investment. There are several pointers from Germany’s experience as a leading solar- and wind-powered nation to prepare for a major ramping up of these green sources. Arguably, the strength and reliability of a power grid capable of handling more power than is available are fundamental to induct higher levels of renewable power. The emphasis here must also be on improving transmission lines: the World Bank programme promises to provide the necessary linkage to solar-rich States. Making power grids intelligent to analyse and give priority to use the output of renewables, accurately forecast the weather to plan next day generation, and viability mechanisms for conventional coal-based plants are other aspects that need attention. Innovation in battery technology is a potential gold mine for the solar alliance and for India to exploit.

Which of the following would be a suitable title of the passage?
A. World Bank and International Solar Alliance (ISA)
B. the solar alliance
C. The World Bank’s agreement with the India-led International Solar Alliance (ISA)
D. Sunny times for solar
E. solar energy programme
Explaination / Solution:

After considering the context of the passage, 'Sunny times for solar' seems to be the most apt title for the passage.

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Q.8
Statement: There were different streams of freedom movements in colonial India carried out by the moderates, liberals, radicals, socialists, and so on. Which one of the following is the best inference from the above statement?
A. The emergence of nationalism in colonial India led to our Independence
B. Nationalism in India emerged in the context of colonialism
C. Nationalism in India is homogeneous
D. Nationalism in India is heterogeneous
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.

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Q.9
The following question presents a sentence, part of which is underlined. Beneath the sentence you find four ways of phrasing the underline part. Following the requirements of the standard written English, select the answer that produces the most effective sentence. Tuberculosis, together with its effects, ranks one of the leading causes of death in India.
A. ranks as one of the leading causes of death
B. rank as one of the leading causes of death
C. has the rank of one of the leading causes of death
D. are one of the leading causes of death
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.

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Q.10
“India is a country of rich heritage and cultural diversity.” Which one of the following facts best supports the claim made in the above sentence?
A. India is a union of 28 states and 7 union territories.
B. India has a population of over 1.1 billion.
C. India is home to 22 official languages and thousands of dialects.
D. The Indian cricket team draws players from over ten states.