Logical Reasoning (Test 3)

Problem Solving And Reasoning : Data Interpretation And Logical Reasoning

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Logical Reasoning
| Logical Reasoning |
Q.1
Directions :Questions in the form of inference/conclusions are based on the passages given below. Each passage is followed by five inferences. You are required to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.
Passage:
There is no disputing the fact that one part of globalization is the information revolution. But like all revolutions, this one has its winners and losers. Even on the Pacific Rim, home of so many economic “miracles”, the vast majority of people live on less than two dollars a day. That is what nearly half the world’s population subsists on, while the poorest 1.2 billion get by on less than one dollar. In the face of these grim realities, talk of a global information age takes on a perverse, ‘let them eat cake’ quality. What possible benefit could this “other half” derive from expanded web-based technology?
The notion that the internet will mainstream the world’s underprivileged fits a pattern of technological fantasy that reaches back at least to the mid-nineteenth century. A more immediate effect, unfortunately, has been an expanding communications gap between the rich and poor. With 90% of internet traffic in English, and native language skills eroding among non-Western internet addicts, 95% of the world’s Web users reside in developed countries. Only 0.08% of Latin Americans had Web access in 1999, which is double that of South Asia. In so far as rapid information flow translates into power, this great divide is integral to the knowledge-based and culturally driven geopolitics that Joseph S. Nye terms “soft power”.
During the mid-nineteenth century, there was a notion that the internet would make the world's poor become part of the mainstream.
A. if the inference is definitely true, i.e., it properly follows from the statement of facts given.
B. if the inference is probably true though not definitely true in the light of the facts given.
C. if the data are inadequate i.e., from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.
D. if the inference is probably false though not definitely false in the light of the facts given.
E. if the inference is definitely false i.e., it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.
Explaination / Solution:

(The first sentence talks about a "pattern of technological fantasy"; that there was an actual notion might not be true, and is most probably false, given the timeline being spoken of here.)

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Q.2
Directions :Questions in the form of inference/conclusions are based on the passages given below. Each passage is followed by five inferences. You are required to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.
Passage:
There is no disputing the fact that one part of globalization is the information revolution. But like all revolutions, this one has its winners and losers. Even on the Pacific Rim, home of so many economic “miracles”, the vast majority of people live on less than two dollars a day. That is what nearly half the world’s population subsists on, while the poorest 1.2 billion get by on less than one dollar. In the face of these grim realities, talk of a global information age takes on a perverse, ‘let them eat cake’ quality. What possible benefit could this “other half” derive from expanded web-based technology?
The notion that the internet will mainstream the world’s underprivileged fits a pattern of technological fantasy that reaches back at least to the mid-nineteenth century. A more immediate effect, unfortunately, has been an expanding communications gap between the rich and poor. With 90% of internet traffic in English, and native language skills eroding among non-Western internet addicts, 95% of the world’s Web users reside in developed countries. Only 0.08% of Latin Americans had Web access in 1999, which is double that of South Asia. In so far as rapid information flow translates into power, this great divide is integral to the knowledge-based and culturally driven geopolitics that Joseph S. Nye terms “soft power”.
Perhaps due to the use of English as the predominant language over the internet, there has arisen an expanding communication gap between the rich and the poor.
A. if the inference is definitely true, i.e., it properly follows from the statement of facts given.
B. in the inference is probably true though not definitely true in the light of the facts given.
C. if the data are inadequate i.e., from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.
D. if the inference is probably false though not definitely false in the light of the facts given.
E. if the inference is definitely false i.e., it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.
Explaination / Solution:

(The second para talks of a communications gap, but it does not state English as the clear and specific reason for the same).

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Q.3
Directions :Questions in the form of inference/conclusions are based on the passages given below. Each passage is followed by five inferences. You are required to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.
Passage:
There is no disputing the fact that one part of globalization is the information revolution. But like all revolutions, this one has its winners and losers. Even on the Pacific Rim, home of so many economic “miracles”, the vast majority of people live on less than two dollars a day. That is what nearly half the world’s population subsists on, while the poorest 1.2 billion get by on less than one dollar. In the face of these grim realities, talk of a global information age takes on a perverse, ‘let them eat cake’ quality. What possible benefit could this “other half” derive from expanded web-based technology?
The notion that the internet will mainstream the world’s underprivileged fits a pattern of technological fantasy that reaches back at least to the mid-nineteenth century. A more immediate effect, unfortunately, has been an expanding communications gap between the rich and poor. With 90% of internet traffic in English, and native language skills eroding among non-Western internet addicts, 95% of the world’s Web users reside in developed countries. Only 0.08% of Latin Americans had Web access in 1999, which is double that of South Asia. In so far as rapid information flow translates into power, this great divide is integral to the knowledge-based and culturally driven geopolitics that Joseph S. Nye terms “soft power”.
The information revolution will bring the world's poor out of the depths of their financial and social troubles, given it spreads through the masses with equity.
A. if the inference is definitely true, i.e., it properly follows from the statement of facts given.
B. in the inference is probably true though not definitely true in the light of the facts given.
C. if the data are inadequate i.e., from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.
D. if the inference is probably false though not definitely false in the light of the facts given.
E. if the inference is definitely false i.e., it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.
Explaination / Solution:

(The passage talks about inequitable distribution of the benefits of the information revolution, hence, this is a reasonable inference.)

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Q.4
Directions :Questions in the form of inference/conclusions are based on the passages given below. Each passage is followed by five inferences. You are required to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.
Passage:
There is no disputing the fact that one part of globalization is the information revolution. But like all revolutions, this one has its winners and losers. Even on the Pacific Rim, home of so many economic “miracles”, the vast majority of people live on less than two dollars a day. That is what nearly half the world’s population subsists on, while the poorest 1.2 billion get by on less than one dollar. In the face of these grim realities, talk of a global information age takes on a perverse, ‘let them eat cake’ quality. What possible benefit could this “other half” derive from expanded web-based technology?
The notion that the internet will mainstream the world’s underprivileged fits a pattern of technological fantasy that reaches back at least to the mid-nineteenth century. A more immediate effect, unfortunately, has been an expanding communications gap between the rich and poor. With 90% of internet traffic in English, and native language skills eroding among non-Western internet addicts, 95% of the world’s Web users reside in developed countries. Only 0.08% of Latin Americans had Web access in 1999, which is double that of South Asia. In so far as rapid information flow translates into power, this great divide is integral to the knowledge-based and culturally driven geopolitics that Joseph S. Nye terms “soft power”.

With English as the main language in use over the internet, there is a concerted attempt by the English speaking Western powers to shape societies across the world according to themselves.
A. if the inference is definitely true, i.e., it properly follows from the statement of facts given
B. in the inference is probably true though not definitely true in the light of the facts given.
C. if the data are inadequate i.e., from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.
D. if the inference is probably false though not definitely false in the light of the facts given.
E. if the inference is definitely false i.e., it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.

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Q.5
Directions :Questions in the form of inference/conclusions are based on the passages given below. Each passage is followed by five inferences. You are required to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity.
Passage:
There is no disputing the fact that one part of globalization is the information revolution. But like all revolutions, this one has its winners and losers. Even on the Pacific Rim, home of so many economic “miracles”, the vast majority of people live on less than two dollars a day. That is what nearly half the world’s population subsists on, while the poorest 1.2 billion get by on less than one dollar. In the face of these grim realities, talk of a global information age takes on a perverse, ‘let them eat cake’ quality. What possible benefit could this “other half” derive from expanded web-based technology?
The notion that the internet will mainstream the world’s underprivileged fits a pattern of technological fantasy that reaches back at least to the mid-nineteenth century. A more immediate effect, unfortunately, has been an expanding communications gap between the rich and poor. With 90% of internet traffic in English, and native language skills eroding among non-Western internet addicts, 95% of the world’s Web users reside in developed countries. Only 0.08% of Latin Americans had Web access in 1999, which is double that of South Asia. In so far as rapid information flow translates into power, this great divide is integral to the knowledge-based and culturally driven geopolitics that Joseph S. Nye terms “soft power”.

The majority of people who live in areas around the Pacific Rim are well to do, enjoying the choicest worldly luxuries and comforts.
A. if the inference is definitely true, i.e., it properly follows from the statement of facts given.
B. in the inference is probably true though not definitely true in the light of the facts given.
C. if the data are inadequate i.e., from the facts given you cannot say whether the inference is likely to be true or false.
D. if the inference is probably false though not definitely false in the light of the facts given.
E. if the inference is definitely false i.e., it cannot possibly be drawn from the facts given or it contradicts the given facts.
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.

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Q.6
Passage:
"The postal service is badly mismanaged. Thirty years ago, first-class letter delivery cost only three cents. Since then, the price has increased sevenfold, with an actual decrease in the speed and reliability of service."
These questions are based on the information given above and the sentences labelled A., B., C., D., E. as given below.
A. The volume of mail handled by the postal service has increased dramatically over the last thirty years.
B. Unprecedented increases in the cost of fuel for trucks and planes have put severe upward pressures on postal delivery costs.
C. Private delivery services usually charge more than does the postal service for comparable delivery services.
D. The average delivery time for a first-class letter three decades ago was actually slightly longer than it is today.
E. The average level of consumer prices overall has increased fourfold over the last thirty years.

Which of the above does NOT weaken the argument presented above:
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
E. E
Explaination / Solution:

Since the price of postage has increased seven times over, this suggests that postal prices have increased at a rate much quicker than inflation. Thus, choice E. suggests that there is price gouging and does support the original argument, making this the correct answer.

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Q.7
Passage:
"The postal service is badly mismanaged. Thirty years ago, first-class letter delivery cost only three cents. Since then, the price has increased sevenfold, with an actual decrease in the speed and reliability of service."
These questions are based on the information given above and the sentences labelled A., B., C., D., E. as given below.
A. The volume of mail handled by the postal service has increased dramatically over the last thirty years.
B. Unprecedented increases in the cost of fuel for trucks and planes have put severe upward pressures on postal delivery costs.
C. Private delivery services usually charge more than does the postal service for comparable delivery services.
D. The average delivery time for a first-class letter three decades ago was actually slightly longer than it is today.
E. The average level of consumer prices overall has increased fourfold over the last thirty years.

Which of the above tends to weaken the argument?
A. A
B. A,B,C,D
C. Both A and C
D. Both C and E
E. All of the above
Explaination / Solution:

the conclusion here is that the postal service is poorly managed. We are looking for something that would weaken the argument, in other words, something that suggests competent management, something that excuses the post office's poor performance. Hence, A, B, C and D all provide excuses for the incompetent management.

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Q.8
"You are hereby appointed as a programmer with a probation period of one year and your performance will be reviewed at the end of the period for confirmation."
These questions are based on the information given above and the sentences labelled (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) as given below.
(A) The performance of an individual is generally not known at the time of extending an appointment offer.
(B) Generally an individual tries to prove his worth during the probation period.
(C) There is no guarantee that you will be appointed at the end of the probation period.
(D) Very often, even highly qualified candidates are not fit to work in the environment of an office and have adverse reactions to strict office regulations.
(E) The company makes every candidate go through a compulsory internship period of one year before extending an appointment offer.

Which of the above have been assumed by the company while extending the appointment offer?
A. Both A and B
B. Only B
C. Only A
D. Only E
E. None of the above
Explaination / Solution:

These statements provide a reason for the company having an evaluation period for the new appointee.

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Q.9
"You are hereby appointed as a programmer with a probation period of one year and your performance will be reviewed at the end of the period for confirmation."
These questions are based on the information given above and the sentences labelled (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) as given below.
(A) The performance of an individual is generally not known at the time of extending an appointment offer.
(B) Generally an individual tries to prove his worth during the probation period.
(C) There is no guarantee that you will be appointed at the end of the probation period.
(D) Very often, even highly qualified candidates are not fit to work in the environment of an office and have adverse reactions to strict office regulations.
(E) The company makes every candidate go through a compulsory internship period of one year before extending an appointment offer.

Which of the above, if true would most weaken the company's insistence upon a probation period?
A. Both A and B
B. Both B and C
C. Only D
D. Only E
E. Only A
Explaination / Solution:

If the candidate has already been evaluated in a company setup, then there is no need for him to go through a probation period once again. Hence, Option (d) is correct.

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Q.10
" Unemployment allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youth above 18 years of age."
These questions are based on the information given above and the sentences labelled (A), (B), (C), (D), (E) as given below.
(A) The unemployed youth in India need monetary support.
(B) The youth who are unemployed have no prospective sources of income in the near future.
(C)The government has sufficient funds to support this extra burden on its treasury.
(D) The move to provide unemployment benefits would plunge larger numbers of young people into idleness and apathy and prevent them from looking for jobs in the future.
(E) The youth needs employment benefits to prevent them from the hiring and firing policy of the corporate houses.

Which of the above statements are assumptions that are implicit in the argument presented by the author?
A. Only A
B. Only B
C. Both A and B
D. A, B and C
E. Both A and C
Explaination / Solution:

Statement B has no bearing whatsoever on the present state of unemployment of young people in the country, hence to be ruled out. Option C is presumptive and an extrapolation of what is merely a suggestion made by the author. Hence, ruled out. The rest are extensions or critiques of the argument. Only A is a valid assumption.

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