Topic: Evolution (Test 2)



Topic: Evolution
Q.1
Which of the following is an example of genetic variation?
A. Todd eats meat, but his brother Rod is a vegetarian
B. Two children have different eye colors
C. One person has a scar, but her friend does not
D. One person is older than another
Answer : Option B
Explaination / Solution:

Genetic variation is the difference in the offspring of same parents produce sexually. The children of same parents having different eye colour is an example of genetic variation. Age, scar and eating habits are not genetic variation.

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Q.2
Which of the following sentences is incorrect about microspheres?
A. Don’t have all properties of life
B. Composed of many protein molecules
C. Bud to form smaller microspheres
D. Have all properties of life
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:

Microspheres are molecules developed during organic evolution. They do not have all properties of life. They are composed of protein molecule and form buds to develop smaller microspheres.

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Q.3
What's the difference between natural selection and sexual selection?
A. Sexual selection is a type of natural selection
B. Sexual selection occurs within demes, natural selection does not
C. Sexual selection occurs during sex
D. Natural selection is a type of sexual selection
Answer : Option A
Explaination / Solution:

Natural selection is the survival of members of species having some new traits that may help the organism in given surrounding. Sexual selection is a kind of natural selection as mating between similar organisms only leads to reproduction.

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Q.4
Which one is used for knowing whether or not a population is evolving?
A. Genetic drift
B. Degree of evolution
C. Proportion between acquired variations
D. Hardy Weinberg equation
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:

Hardy-Weinberg equation is used to knowing whether or not a population is evolving or not. This equation is represented as 

In the equation, p2 represents the frequency of the homozygous genotype AA, q2 represents the frequency of the homozygous genotype aa, and 2pq represents the frequency of the heterozygous genotype Aa.


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Q.5
In nature, the process by which different organisms evolve similar traits is called
A. Artificial selection
B. Divergent evolution
C. Convergent evolution
D. Genetic drift
Answer : Option C
Explaination / Solution:

convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related (not monophyletic), independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. Analogous organs are example of convergent evolution.

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Q.6
Which of the following are difficult to explain in terms of natural selection?
A. Some traits appear to have no adaptive value
B. Male peacocks evolve tail feathers that would appear to make them more rather than less vulnerable to predators
C. Male deer evolve antlers that are not used to defend themselves against predators
D. A bird issues a warning cry that puts it at greater risk of being noticed by a predator
Answer : Option A
Explaination / Solution:

All the traits that appear due to natural selection do not have adaptive value. This concept is although true but cannot be explained in terms of natural selection.

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Q.7
Which of the following is the example of adaptive radiation?
A. Only Darwin finches
B. Only Australian marsupials
C. Light and dark winged moths
D. Darwin finches and Australian marsupials
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:

Darwin finches and Australian marsupials are example of adaptive radiations as all the birds evolve from same birds having different beaks and Australian marsupials arise from common ancestors.

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Q.8
A baby has been born with a small tail. It is the case exhibiting
A. Metamorphosis
B. Mutation
C. Retrogressive evolution
D. Atavism
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:

Avetism is the tendency to revert to ancestral type. It is a kind of evolutionary throwback, such as traits reappearing which had disappeared generation before. Baby born with small tail is a case of atavism.

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Q.9
The extinct human who lived 1,00,000 to 40,000 years ago, in Europe, Asia and parts of Africa, with short stature, heavy eye brows, retreating foreheads, large jaws with heavy teeth, stocky bodies, a lumbering gait and stooped posture was
A. Ramapithecus
B. Cro-Magnon human
C. Neanderthal human
D. Homo habilis
Answer : Option C
Explaination / Solution:

Neanderthals are recognisably human but have distinctive facial features and a stocky build that were evolutionary adaptations to cold, dry environments.

This species lived between 28,000 and 300,000 years ago.

Key physical features :

  • Body size and shape: Neanderthals were generally shorter and had more robust skeletons and muscular bodies than modern humans.
  • Brain size was larger than the average modern human brain and averaged 1500 cubic centimetres.
  • Skull : distinctive skull shape that was long and low, with a rounded brain case.  mid-face region showed a characteristic forward projection (this resulted in a face that looked like it had been ‘pulled’ forward by the nose). orbits (eye sockets) were large and rounded. Nose was broad and very large
  • Jaws and teeth : jaws were larger and more robust than those of modern humans and had a gap called the retromolar space, behind the third molars (wisdom teeth) at the back of the jaw. jaw lacked the projecting bony chin that is found in Homo sapiens. teeth were larger than those of modern humans.

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Q.10
Modern Homo sapiens arose during ice age between
A. 5,000 - 3,000 years ago
B. 75,000 - 10,000 years ago
C. 95,000 – 80,000 years ago
D. 1000 - 500 years ago
Answer : Option B
Explaination / Solution:

Homo sapiens arose in Africa and moved across continentsand developed into distinct races. During ice age between 75,000-10,000 years ago modern Homo sapiens arose.

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