Topic: Comprehension passages and grammar



Topic: Comprehension passages and grammar
Q.1
“If you are looking for a history of India, or for an account of the rise and fall of the British Raj, or for the reason of the cleaving of the subcontinent into two mutually antagonistic parts and the effects this mutilation will have in the respective section, and ultimately on Asia, you will not find it in these pages; for though I have spent a lifetime in the country. I lived too near the seat of events, and was too intimately associated with the actors, to get the perspective needed for the impartial recording of these matters”. Here, the word „antagonistic‟ is closest in meaning to
A. impartial
B. argumentative
C. separated
D. hostile
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.


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Q.2
 Consider the following statements: 
P: Good mobile phones are not cheap 
Q: Cheap mobile phones are not good 
L: P implies Q 
M: Q implies P 
N: P is equivalent to Q  
Which one of the following about L, M, and N is CORRECT? 
A. Only L is TRUE.
B. Only M is TRUE.
C. Only N is TRUE.
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.


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Q.3
The horse has played a little known but very important role in the field of medicine. Horses were injected with toxins of diseases until their blood built up immunities. Then a serum was made from their blood. Serums to fight with diphtheria and tetanus were developed this way. It can be inferred from the passage that horses were
A. given immunity to diseases
B. generally quite immune to diseases
C. given medicines to fight toxins
D. given diphtheria and tetanus serums
Answer : Option B
Explaination / Solution:

From the passage it cannot be inferred that horses are given immunity as in (A), since the aim is to develop medicine and in turn immunize humans. (B) is correct since it is given that horses develop immunity after some time. Refer “until their blood built up immunities”. Even (C) is invalid since medicine is not built till immunity is developed in the horses. (D) is incorrect since specific examples are cited to illustrate and this cannot capture the essence.

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Q.4
Indian currency notes show the denomination indicated in at least seventeen languages. If this is not an indication of the nation’s diversity, nothing else is. Which of the following can be logically inferred from the above sentences?
A. India is a country of exactly seventeen languages.
B. Linguistic pluralism is the only indicator of a nation’s diversity
C. Indian currency notes have sufficient space for all the Indian languages.
D. Linguistic pluralism is strong evidence of India’s diversity.
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.


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Q.5
Few school curricula include a unit on how to deal with bereavement and grief, and yet all students at some point in their lives suffer from losses through death and parting. Based on the above passage which topic would not be included in a unit on bereavement?
A. how to write a letter of condolence
B. what emotional stages are passed through in the healing process
C. what the leading causes of death are
D. how to give support to a grieving friend
Answer : Option C
Explaination / Solution:

The given passage clearly deals with how to deal with bereavement and grief and so after the tragedy occurs and not about precautions. Therefore, irrespective of the causes of death, a school student rarely gets into details of causes—which is beyond the scope of the context. Rest all are important in dealing with grief.

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Q.6
Direction: Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. 

State Bank of India (or SBI) is India’s largest public sector bank, and a Fortune 500 company. It has now branched into various financial services, and is a government-owned corporation headquartered out of Mumbai. As of 2014-15, SBI had assets worth Rs. 20,480 billion and was ranked 232rd on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world’s biggest corporations as of 2016.SBI traces its roots back to 1806, making it the oldest commercial bank in the Indian subcontinent. The State Bank of India as it is today has been in existence since 1956. As on date, it has a market share of over a whopping 20 percent in deposits and loans among Indian commercial banks.SBI offers a range of banking products and services through its extensive branch network, which includes products targeted at resident Indians as well as non-resident Indians (or NRIs).In addition to its five associate banks, the SBI also operates in the non-banking sphere which includes credit cards, life and general insurance, funds management and capital markets among others. 
What sets them apart from competition is the sheer reach that SBI offers, reaching out to potential home owners in semi-urban and rural areas in addition to metropolitan cities. Further, in keeping with the rapid technological development in the banking and financial services (BFSI) sector, the SBI has expanded its reach by offering services at the click of a button.SBI has a wide reach that is not spread only domestically but as well as in the overseas market. There are 14 regional hubs and over 57 zonal offices located in India. The number of bank branches has crossed 18,354 in India itself, and as of 2014-15, the Bank had 191 offices spread across 36 countries worldwide. It also operates several foreign subsidies or affiliates.When it comes to home loans, SBI offers various products, and all of these product offerings can be categorised as under:Home loans, which include options for new homes, resale (or pre-owned) homes, as well as construction of a house. It provides Loan for Earnest Money Deposit, which is to help individuals finance their requirements towards earnest money to book residential plots/ built-up housing uses, properties being sold by government housing agencies an urban development authorities and housing boards. Further, this loan can be repaid through the proceeds of the housing loan availed of from SBI.Takeover of home loans, which is a balance transfer facility to shift your existing home loan from scheduled commercial banks, or private and foreign banks and even housing finance companies (registered with the National Housing Bank) to SBI.Tribal Plus Scheme, which is a special housing finance scheme for the hill/ tribal areas of North East India and areas around Chandigarh, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna and Bhubaneswar.HerGhar, loans exclusively for women home owners, offered at a concessional interest rate. FlexiPay Home Loan Scheme, which is targeted at young working professionals to ease the financial burden by offering attractive repayment options.In addition the SBI also caters to the NRI audience with a selection of housing loan product offerings.In keeping with the tradition of employing the latest technological advances, you can apply for a housing loan both at a SBI branch and online as well. SBI also has digital branches known as SBI InTouch, which offer an instant loan facility for home loans, among other products and services. Rewarding individuals for availing of a home loan, SBI has an attractive rewards programme called the State Bank Rewardz, which offers reward points as part of its Group Loyalty Programme. These points can then be redeemed upon accrual for various products and services, both offline as well as online.

Which of the following is a unique feature of FlexiPay Home Loan Scheme?
A. This loan can be repaid through the proceeds of the housing loan availed of from SBI.
B. It provides a balance transfer facility to shift your existing home loan from scheduled commercial banks, or private and foreign banks and even housing finance companies (registered with the National Housing Bank) to SBI.
C. It is offered at a concessional interest rate.
D. It reduces the loan repayment burden on the young earning people.
E. It is specially meant for young working women.
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:

It can be inferred from the following statement of the passage, 'FlexiPay Home Loan Scheme, which is targeted at young working professionals to ease the financial burden by offering attractive repayment options.'

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Q.7
Direction: Which of the phrases (A), (B), (C) and (D) given below each sentence can replace the word printed in bold in the sentence to make it grammatically correct? If the sentence is correct as it is given and no correction is required, mark (E) i.e. 'No correction required' as the answer.

Bitcoin could let transacting party remain anonymous, keep transactions very secure, and eliminate middlemen fees.
A. would letting transactions parties remains
B. should lets transacting party remain
C. would let transacting parties remain
D. would have transacting parties remain
E. No correction required.
Answer : Option C
Explaination / Solution:

'would let transacting parties remain' is the correct answer. 
'Would' is used to preserve the future aspect when talking about the past. If you are writing about past events, you can use it to indicate something that was in the future at that point in time but is not necessarily in the future right now.
Could represents a possibility.
Here, the future aspect of Bitcoin is being discussed, hence would is a more suitable response.

Would letting is grammatically incorrect; hence option A can be eliminated. 

Option D makes the sentence grammatically incorrect; hence it can be eliminated.

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Q.8
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answers the questions given below it. 

Dine on a steady diet of books like The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East or When China Rules the World, and it's easy to think that the future belongs to Asia. As one prominent herald of the region's rise put it, 'We are entering a new era of world history: the end of Western domination and the arrival of the Asian century.' 
Sustained, rapid economic growth since World War 2 has undeniably boosted the region's economic output and military capabilities. But it's a gross exaggeration to say that Asia will emerge as the world's predominant power player. At most, Asia's rise will lead to the arrival of a multi-polar world, not another unipolar one. 
Asia is nowhere near closing its economic and military gap with the West. The region produces roughly 30 percent of global economic output, but because of its huge population, its Per Capita GDP is only $5,800, compared with $48,000 in the United States. Asian countries are furiously upgrading their militaries, but their combined military spending in 2008 was still only a third that of the United States. Even at current torrid rates of growth, it will take the average Asian 77 years to reach the income of the average American. The Chinese need 47 years. For Indians, the figure is 123 years. And Asia's combined military budget won't equal that of the United States for 72 years. 
In any case, it is meaningless to talk about Asia as a single entity of power, now or in the future. Far more likely is that the fast ascent of one regional player will be greeted with alarm by its closest neighbours. Asian history is replete with examples of competition for power and even military conflict among its big players. China and Japan have fought repeatedly over Korea; the Soviet Union teamed up with India and Vietnam to check China, while China supported Pakistan to counterbalance India. Already, China's recent rise has pushed Japan and India closer together. If Asia is becoming the world's centre of geopolitical gravity, it's a murky middle indeed. 
Those who think Asia's gains in hard power will inevitably lead to its geopolitical dominance might also want to look at another crucial ingredient of clout: ideas. Pax Americana was made possible not only by the overwhelming economic and military might of the United States but also by a set of visionary ideas: free trade, Wilsonian liberalism, and multilateral institutions. Although Asia today may have the world's most dynamic economies, it does not seem to play an equally inspiring role as a thought leader. The big idea animating Asians now is empowerment; Asians rightly feel proud that they are making a new industrial revolution. But self-confidence is not an ideology, and the much-touted Asian model of development does not seem to be an exportable product.

Which of the following best expresses the author's estimate of Asia's rising power?
A. He acknowledges Asia's rise post World War 2 but provides information to argue why Asia cannot be a superpower.
B. He believes that Asia is the most backward continent in the world and its tall claims of being the future superpower are ridiculous and fantastic.
C. He points out the obstacles Asia faces in its path to becoming a superpower and also suggests measures to overcome them.
D. He is optimistic about the rise of Asia but warns that this would take a very long time.
E. None of these
Answer : Option A
Explaination / Solution:

Option [b] can be rejected outright as it is very negative and shows Asia in very poor light. While reiterating his belief that Asia cannot be a superpower, the author acknowledges the advancements made by Asia since World War 2. He certainly provides information about the obstacles Asia faces today, but does not suggest remedies to overcome them, so [c] is incorrect. [d] is only partly correct - the author does contend that Asia, if at all it were to match the United States, would take very long to do so. However, he is not optimistic about Asia's rise at all. But [a] is correct. It constitutes the central argument of the author. Hence, [a].

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Q.9
Consider the following logical inferences. 
I1 : If it rains then the cricket match will not be played. The cricket match was played. Inference: There was no rain. 
I2 : If it rains then the cricket match will not be played. It did not rain. Inference: The cricket match was played.
Which of the following is TRUE? 
A. Both I1 and I2 are correct inferences
B. Both I1 and I2 are correct inferences
C. I1 is not correct but I2 is a correct inference
D. Both I1 and I2 are not correct inferences
Answer : Option B
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.


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Q.10
Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. 

The concept of ‘Corporate Governance’ and ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ are two concepts that have been developed by western economies. A company which is well managed and governed is successful in the sense that it fulfils the aims of all its stakeholders and grows with sustainability. Such an organization should be able to fulfil its obligation towards the society at large and in the process be able to help in sustaining its progress as well as progress of the economy as a whole. These concepts have become all the more relevant in developing and emerging economies and have spread across all sectors. Financial institutions and banks are spear headers of economic development in emerging economies. The onus of capital accumulation, in view of a low savings rate, along with mobilization of capital into productive and priority sectors of the economy, lies on the banks and financial institutions. These institutions thus play a dual role in prevalence of good governance norms and ensuring that the society gets its due. On one hand, banks and financial institutions must practice good governance norms as well as fulfil their obligations towards society by practicing good CSR, whilst they should ensure that the large corporations do the same by virtue of being large investors in these corporations. 
The issue of relationship or complementarity of Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility has been often discussed. The concept of ‘Corporate Governance’ essentially points towards ethical functioning of a corporation whereby in the process of achievement of the goal of profit maximization, the rights and interests of all the stakeholders of the corporation should be protected. 
Corporate Social responsibility essentially consists of or refers to actions of a corporation which benefits the society in general, an external stake holder of the corporation and it may contradict with the interests of one or more internal stakeholders. However, it is not essential that the interests may necessarily contradict. It has been widely observed that successful corporations generally give it back to the society as they continue to benefit from it. 
The practice of good governance norms in banks is essential as it directs and leads economic growth as well as economic development in an economy. The banks and other financial institutions, basically function for the benefit of the society, hence the practice of CSR activities by banks assumes added significance. CSR practices are not only for external stake holders of an organization, but it embodies many aspects like employee relations, diversity, human right activities, non-practice of harmful policies, compensation policies practiced by organization etc. The CSR activities also help in brand building of organizations, which is an important aspect for banks and financial institutions as well in view of increasing competition in this sector. 

How do banks and financial institutions play a crucial role in the economic development of emerging economies? 
(i) By channelizing capital in productive sectors of the economy 
(ii) By helping in capital formation 
(iii) By creating conducive environment for investment and trade
A. Only (i)
B. Only (ii)
C. Only (iii)
D. Both (i) and (ii)
E. Both (i) and (iii)
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:

It can be interpreted from these lines of the passage, “The onus of capital accumulation, in view of a low savings rate, along with mobilization of capital into productive and priority sectors of the economy, lies on the banks and financial institutions.”

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