Comprehension Skill

Comprehension Skill

Comprehension Skill
| Comprehension passages and grammar | | Comprehension |
Q.1
The horse has played a little known but very important role in the field of medicine. Horses were injected with toxins of diseases until their blood built up immunities. Then a serum was made from their blood. Serums to fight with diphtheria and tetanus were developed this way. It can be inferred from the passage that horses were
A. given immunity to diseases
B. generally quite immune to diseases
C. given medicines to fight toxins
D. given diphtheria and tetanus serums
Answer : Option B
Explaination / Solution:

From the passage it cannot be inferred that horses are given immunity as in (A), since the aim is to develop medicine and in turn immunize humans. (B) is correct since it is given that horses develop immunity after some time. Refer “until their blood built up immunities”. Even (C) is invalid since medicine is not built till immunity is developed in the horses. (D) is incorrect since specific examples are cited to illustrate and this cannot capture the essence.

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Q.2
After several defeats in wars, Robert Bruce went in exile and wanted to commit suicide. Just before committing suicide, he came across a spider attempting tirelessly to have its net. Time and again, the spider failed but that did not deter it to refrain from making attempts. Such attempts by the spider made Bruce curious. Thus, Bruce started observing the nearimpossible goal of the spider to have the net. Ultimately, the spider succeeded in having its net despite several failures. Such act of the spider encouraged Bruce not to commit suicide. And then, Bruce went back again and won many a battle, and the rest is history. Which one of the following assertions is best supported by the above information?
A. Failure is the pillar of success
B. Honesty is the best policy
C. Life begins and ends with adventures
D. No adversity justifies giving up hope
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.


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Q.3
Modern warfare has changed from large scale clashes of armies to suppression of civilian populations. Chemical agents that do their work silently appear to be suited to such warfare; and regretfully, there exist people in military establishments who think that chemical agents are useful tools for their cause. Which of the following statements best sums up the meaning of the above passage:
A. Modern warfare has resulted in civil strife.
B. Chemical agents are useful in modern warfare.
C. Use of chemical agents in warfare would be undesirable
D. People in military establishments like to use chemical agents in war
Answer : Option B
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.


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Q.4
Direction: Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. 

State Bank of India (or SBI) is India’s largest public sector bank, and a Fortune 500 company. It has now branched into various financial services, and is a government-owned corporation headquartered out of Mumbai. As of 2014-15, SBI had assets worth Rs. 20,480 billion and was ranked 232rd on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world’s biggest corporations as of 2016.SBI traces its roots back to 1806, making it the oldest commercial bank in the Indian subcontinent. The State Bank of India as it is today has been in existence since 1956. As on date, it has a market share of over a whopping 20 percent in deposits and loans among Indian commercial banks.SBI offers a range of banking products and services through its extensive branch network, which includes products targeted at resident Indians as well as non-resident Indians (or NRIs).In addition to its five associate banks, the SBI also operates in the non-banking sphere which includes credit cards, life and general insurance, funds management and capital markets among others. 
What sets them apart from competition is the sheer reach that SBI offers, reaching out to potential home owners in semi-urban and rural areas in addition to metropolitan cities. Further, in keeping with the rapid technological development in the banking and financial services (BFSI) sector, the SBI has expanded its reach by offering services at the click of a button.SBI has a wide reach that is not spread only domestically but as well as in the overseas market. There are 14 regional hubs and over 57 zonal offices located in India. The number of bank branches has crossed 18,354 in India itself, and as of 2014-15, the Bank had 191 offices spread across 36 countries worldwide. It also operates several foreign subsidies or affiliates.When it comes to home loans, SBI offers various products, and all of these product offerings can be categorised as under:Home loans, which include options for new homes, resale (or pre-owned) homes, as well as construction of a house. It provides Loan for Earnest Money Deposit, which is to help individuals finance their requirements towards earnest money to book residential plots/ built-up housing uses, properties being sold by government housing agencies an urban development authorities and housing boards. Further, this loan can be repaid through the proceeds of the housing loan availed of from SBI.Takeover of home loans, which is a balance transfer facility to shift your existing home loan from scheduled commercial banks, or private and foreign banks and even housing finance companies (registered with the National Housing Bank) to SBI.Tribal Plus Scheme, which is a special housing finance scheme for the hill/ tribal areas of North East India and areas around Chandigarh, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna and Bhubaneswar.HerGhar, loans exclusively for women home owners, offered at a concessional interest rate. FlexiPay Home Loan Scheme, which is targeted at young working professionals to ease the financial burden by offering attractive repayment options.In addition the SBI also caters to the NRI audience with a selection of housing loan product offerings.In keeping with the tradition of employing the latest technological advances, you can apply for a housing loan both at a SBI branch and online as well. SBI also has digital branches known as SBI InTouch, which offer an instant loan facility for home loans, among other products and services. Rewarding individuals for availing of a home loan, SBI has an attractive rewards programme called the State Bank Rewardz, which offers reward points as part of its Group Loyalty Programme. These points can then be redeemed upon accrual for various products and services, both offline as well as online.

What makes SBI the largest public sector bank in India?
A. As of 2014-15, SBI had assets worth Rs. 20,480 billion and was ranked 232rd on the Fortune Global 500 list of the world’s biggest corporations as of 2016.
B. SBI traces its roots back to 1806, making it the oldest commercial bank in the Indian subcontinent.
C. As on date, it has a market share of over a whopping 20 percent in deposits and loans among Indian commercial banks.SBI offers a range of banking products and services through its extensive branch network
D. It includes products targeted at resident Indians as well as non-resident Indians (or NRIs).
E. SBI is not only India’s oldest bank but it also has the highest market share among all other banks. It also continuously keeps implementing and updating policies keeping in mind the benefits of the consumers.
Answer : Option E
Explaination / Solution:

What makes a bank the best are not the small factors like its age or its shares but what policies it brings for its customers and how it retains them increasing its market share. So, option E is the most suitable response.

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Q.5
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answers the questions given below it. 

Dine on a steady diet of books like The New Asian Hemisphere: The Irresistible Shift of Global Power to the East or When China Rules the World, and it's easy to think that the future belongs to Asia. As one prominent herald of the region's rise put it, 'We are entering a new era of world history: the end of Western domination and the arrival of the Asian century.' 
Sustained, rapid economic growth since World War 2 has undeniably boosted the region's economic output and military capabilities. But it's a gross exaggeration to say that Asia will emerge as the world's predominant power player. At most, Asia's rise will lead to the arrival of a multi-polar world, not another unipolar one. 
Asia is nowhere near closing its economic and military gap with the West. The region produces roughly 30 percent of global economic output, but because of its huge population, its Per Capita GDP is only $5,800, compared with $48,000 in the United States. Asian countries are furiously upgrading their militaries, but their combined military spending in 2008 was still only a third that of the United States. Even at current torrid rates of growth, it will take the average Asian 77 years to reach the income of the average American. The Chinese need 47 years. For Indians, the figure is 123 years. And Asia's combined military budget won't equal that of the United States for 72 years. 
In any case, it is meaningless to talk about Asia as a single entity of power, now or in the future. Far more likely is that the fast ascent of one regional player will be greeted with alarm by its closest neighbours. Asian history is replete with examples of competition for power and even military conflict among its big players. China and Japan have fought repeatedly over Korea; the Soviet Union teamed up with India and Vietnam to check China, while China supported Pakistan to counterbalance India. Already, China's recent rise has pushed Japan and India closer together. If Asia is becoming the world's centre of geopolitical gravity, it's a murky middle indeed. 
Those who think Asia's gains in hard power will inevitably lead to its geopolitical dominance might also want to look at another crucial ingredient of clout: ideas. Pax Americana was made possible not only by the overwhelming economic and military might of the United States but also by a set of visionary ideas: free trade, Wilsonian liberalism, and multilateral institutions. Although Asia today may have the world's most dynamic economies, it does not seem to play an equally inspiring role as a thought leader. The big idea animating Asians now is empowerment; Asians rightly feel proud that they are making a new industrial revolution. But self-confidence is not an ideology, and the much-touted Asian model of development does not seem to be an exportable product.

Which of the following can be inferred from the penultimate paragraph?
A. The Asian countries touted to become superpowers seem to be playing a game of one-upmanship.
B. Two Asian countries often team up with each other in order to check a third's growth.
C. There is animosity even between Asian countries that are each others' neighbours.
D. All of these above
E. None of these
Answer : Option D
Explaination / Solution:

The penultimate paragraph makes the point that Asia is not united as a continent and its nations are continually in direct or indirect conflict with each other. [a] and [b] both become clear by the collusions described in the paragraph. The paragraph also mentions military conflict, so [c] can also be inferred. Hence, [d].

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Q.6
Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the question that follow. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. 

The concept of ‘Corporate Governance’ and ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ are two concepts that have been developed by western economies. A company which is well managed and governed is successful in the sense that it fulfils the aims of all its stakeholders and grows with sustainability. Such an organization should be able to fulfil its obligation towards the society at large and in the process be able to help in sustaining its progress as well as progress of the economy as a whole. These concepts have become all the more relevant in developing and emerging economies and have spread across all sectors. Financial institutions and banks are spear headers of economic development in emerging economies. The onus of capital accumulation, in view of a low savings rate, along with mobilization of capital into productive and priority sectors of the economy, lies on the banks and financial institutions. These institutions thus play a dual role in prevalence of good governance norms and ensuring that the society gets its due. On one hand, banks and financial institutions must practice good governance norms as well as fulfil their obligations towards society by practicing good CSR, whilst they should ensure that the large corporations do the same by virtue of being large investors in these corporations. 
The issue of relationship or complementarity of Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility has been often discussed. The concept of ‘Corporate Governance’ essentially points towards ethical functioning of a corporation whereby in the process of achievement of the goal of profit maximization, the rights and interests of all the stakeholders of the corporation should be protected. 
Corporate Social responsibility essentially consists of or refers to actions of a corporation which benefits the society in general, an external stake holder of the corporation and it may contradict with the interests of one or more internal stakeholders. However, it is not essential that the interests may necessarily contradict. It has been widely observed that successful corporations generally give it back to the society as they continue to benefit from it. 
The practice of good governance norms in banks is essential as it directs and leads economic growth as well as economic development in an economy. The banks and other financial institutions, basically function for the benefit of the society, hence the practice of CSR activities by banks assumes added significance. CSR practices are not only for external stake holders of an organization, but it embodies many aspects like employee relations, diversity, human right activities, non-practice of harmful policies, compensation policies practiced by organization etc. The CSR activities also help in brand building of organizations, which is an important aspect for banks and financial institutions as well in view of increasing competition in this sector.

What is the basic difference between Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance?
A. Corporate Social Responsibility is only targeted at external stakeholders whereas Corporate Governance focuses at internal stakeholders
B. Corporate Governance is essential for the maximizing the profit of an organization whereas CSR means futile drainage of resources
C. Corporate Governance may not be contradictory with the interest of internal stakeholders of a company whereas CSR can, but not necessarily
D. CSR is essential for the economic development of a country whereas Corporate Governance isn’t
E. None of these
Answer : Option C
Explaination / Solution:

This can be interpreted from the given lines, “Corporate Social responsibility essentially consists of or refers to actions of a corporation which benefits the society in general, an external stake holder of the corporation and it may contradict with the interests of one or more internal stakeholders.” It means that the CSR prioritises social good above the interest of an organization and hence sometimes there may be some conflict of interest between internal stakeholders and external shareholder i.e the society while the ultimate goal of Corporate Governance is “…. of profit maximization, the rights and interests of all the stakeholders of the corporation should be protected.” There is no such contradiction or conflict in it.

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Q.7
Direction: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. 

The World Bank’s agreement with the India-led International Solar Alliance (ISA) to help it mobilise a trillion dollars in investments by 2030 and its billion-dollar programme to support Indian initiatives for expanded solar generation are significant steps in the global transition to a clean energy pathway. While the cost of solar power has been declining, one of the biggest obstacles to a scale-up in developing countries has been the high cost of finance for photovoltaic projects. That problem can be addressed by the ISA through the World Bank partnership, as the agreement will help develop financing instruments, reduce hedging costs and currency risks, and enable technology transfer. India has raised its ambitions five-fold since the time it launched the National Solar Mission, and the target now is an installed capacity of 100 gigawatts by 2022 out of a total of 175 GW from all renewables. Strong policy support is also necessary to improve domestic manufacture of solar cells and panels, which has remained unattractive because cheap imports are available. India’s efforts have also suffered a setback, with the adverse WTO ruling against the stipulation of a prescribed level of domestic content for solar projects. Developing a strong solar manufacturing industry is essential for sustained economic growth, and to connect those who never had the boon of electricity.
Support from the World Bank for large-scale and rooftop solar deployments, innovative and hybrid technologies, and storage and transmission lines presents an opportunity for India to go the German way and achieve energiewende, or energy transition. For instance, the $625-million grid-connected rooftop solar fund could help strengthen State-level programmes for net metering. A transparent regime that enables individuals and communities to plug into the grid without bureaucratic hurdles would unlock small-scale private investment. There are several pointers from Germany’s experience as a leading solar- and wind-powered nation to prepare for a major ramping up of these green sources. Arguably, the strength and reliability of a power grid capable of handling more power than is available are fundamental to induct higher levels of renewable power. The emphasis here must also be on improving transmission lines: the World Bank programme promises to provide the necessary linkage to solar-rich States. Making power grids intelligent to analyse and give priority to use the output of renewables, accurately forecast the weather to plan next day generation, and viability mechanisms for conventional coal-based plants are other aspects that need attention. Innovation in battery technology is a potential gold mine for the solar alliance and for India to exploit.

Which among the following is FALSE according to the passage given above?
A. the World Bank programme promises to provide the necessary linkage to solar-rich States
B. Innovation in battery technology is a potential gold mine for the solar alliance and for India to exploit
C. The $652-million grid-connected rooftop solar fund could help strengthen State-level programmes for net metering.
D. Both A and C
E. None of the above
Answer : Option C
Explaination / Solution:

The passage talks about the $625 million gird-connected rooftop solar fund and not $652.

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Q.8
Direction:Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions. 

There was a village which was ruined by a strong earthquake. With the houses and the streets shattered, the villagers abandoned the village to settle elsewhere.
Despite being shattered, the vacant houses of this village had become homes for a large number of mice. The mice found the place very comfortable and grew in numbers after some time.
There was a lake on the outskirts of the village, where a herd of elephants used to visit regularly to drink water and bathe. These elephants used to travel through the abandoned village to reach the lake.
But as the herd of elephants travelled through the abandoned village, everyday many mice got trampled. This posed a problem for the mice. So, the king of mice decided to confront the elephants and request them to act accordingly.
Next day, as the herd of elephants approached, the king of mice met the elephants cordially and said, "O Sirs, we live in the ruins of this abandoned village and as you travel through this village, everyday many mice get trampled. Therefore, I request you to change your route to the lake. If you do so, I shall remember to return the favour in your time of need."
At this the king of elephants laughed, "O king of Mice, there will be no such favour that we, the giant elephants, will require from you, small mice. However, I will honour your request and we will change the route to the lake from today. You will not have to worry about any danger caused by us anymore."
The king of mice thanked the king of the elephants for his consideration, and the herd of elephants never entered the village anymore.
After some time, the herd of elephants fell into traps set by elephant-hunters. Many of the elephants, including their king, got entangled in the nets. They struggled hard but could not set themselves free from the strong nets.
Suddenly, the king of the elephants remembered the promise of the king of mice. He summoned another elephant who had not got trapped to remind the king of mice of his promise and plea for help on his behalf.
As soon as the elephant informed the king of mice of the situation, the king of mice summoned all mice at once. He said, "Now is the time for us to return the favour of the elephants. We should go immediately"
And so, the elephant brought the mice to the place where the other elephants had been trapped. All the mice started nibbling on the strong nets and cut them loose.
The elephants broke loose from the nets and were grateful to be free again. The king of elephants thanked the king of mice for his timely help, and became great friends thereafter.

Why did the king of elephants laugh on the king of mice?
A. the king of mice met the elephants angrily
B. the king of mice warned the king of elephants
C. the king of mice promised to king of elephants to return the favour in their time of need
D. the king of mice scolded the king of elephants
E. Not mentioned in the passage
Answer : Option C
Explaination / Solution:

The passage clearly states that: At this the king of elephants laughed, "O king of Mice, there will be no such favour that we, the giant elephants, will require from you, small mice."

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Q.9
“The hold of the nationalist imagination on our colonial past is such that anything inadequately or improperly nationalist is just not history.” Which of the following statements best reflects the author‟s opinion?
A. Nationalists are highly imaginative.
B. History is viewed through the filter of nationalism.
C. Our colonial past never happened
D. Nationalism has to be both adequately and properly imagined.
Answer : Option B
Explaination / Solution:
No Explaination.


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Q.10
Given the sequence of terms, AD CG FK JP, the next term is
A. OV
B. OW
C. PV
D. PW
Answer : Option A
Explaination / Solution:



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