# Logical Reasoning (Test 2)

## Cat Entrance Exams : Data Interpretation And Logical Reasoning

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Logical Reasoning
| Logical Reasoning |
Q.1
The cases of food poisoning due to consumption of liquor in rural areas are far greater than such cases in urban areas. Hence it can be concluded that the liquor supplied in rural areas is of low quality than that supplied in urban areas.

A). The prices of liquor are lower in rural areas than in urban areas.
B). Percentage of people consuming liquor is more in rural areas than in urban areas.
C). There are many unauthorized spurious liquor shops in the rural areas.
D). Number of people suffering from food poisoning due to consumption of liquor as a percentage of people who consume liquor is almost equal for both urban areas and rural areas.

Which of the above statements numbered (A), (B), (C) and (D) if true will most weaken the given argument?
A. Only D
B. Both B and D
C. Only C
D. Only B
E. None of these
Explaination / Solution:

(A) is irrelevant and (C) supports the given argument. (B) weakens the argument by saying that since more people consume liquor in rural areas hence it is normal that the cases of food poisoning are more in rural areas. Similarly (D) also weakens the argument.

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Q.2
Directions: These questions are based on statement given below and the sentences labeled (A), (B), (C) and (D) as given below.

The cases of food poisoning due to consumption of liquor in rural areas are far greater than such cases in urban areas. Hence it can be concluded that the liquor supplied in rural areas is of low quality than that supplied in urban areas.

A). The prices of liquor are lower in rural areas than in urban areas.
B). Percentage of people consuming liquor is more in rural areas than in urban areas.
C). There are many unauthorized spurious liquor shops in the rural areas.
D). Number of people suffering from food poisoning due to consumption of liquor as a percentage of people who consume liquor is almost equal for both urban areas and rural areas.
Which of the above statements numbered (A), (B), C. and (D) if true will strengthen the given argument?
A. Only A
B. Only B
C. Only C
D. Both A and D
E. A, C and D
Explaination / Solution:

Only (C) supports the argument saying that there are many unauthorized spurious liquor shops in the rural areas due to which the low-quality liquor is supplied in rural areas.

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Q.3
Directions: Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below:

Poverty measurement is an unsettled issue, both conceptually and methodologically. Since poverty is a process as well as outcome; many come out of it while others may be falling into it. The net effect
of these two parallel processes is a proportion commonly identified as the ‘head count ratio’, but these ratios hide the fundamental dynamism that characterizes poverty in practice. The most recent poverty reestimates by an expert group has also missed the crucial dynamism. In a study conducted on 13,000 households which represented the entire country in 1993-94 and again on 2004-05, it was found that in the ten-year period 18.2% rural population moved out of poverty whereas another 22.1% fell into it over this period. This net increase of about four percentage points was seen to have a cons variation across stales and regions.
Which of the following is an assumption which is implicitin the facts stated in the above paragraph?
A. It may not be possible to have an accurate poverty measurement in India
B. Level of poverty in India is static over the years
C. Researchers avoid making conclusions on poverty measurement data in India
D. Government of India has a mechanism to measure level of poverty effectively and accurately
E. None of the above
Explaination / Solution:

Accurate poverty measurement is not possible in India

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Q.4
Directions: Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below:

Poverty measurement is an unsettled issue, both conceptually and methodologically. Since poverty is a process as well as outcome; many come out of it while others may be falling into it. The net effect
of these two parallel processes is a proportion commonly identified as the ‘head count ratio’, but these ratios hide the fundamental dynamism that characterizes poverty in practice. The most recent poverty reestimates by an expert group has also missed the crucial dynamism. In a study conducted on 13,000 households which represented the entire country in 1993-94 and again on 2004-05, it was found that in the ten-year period 18.2% rural population moved out of poverty whereas another 22.1% fell into it over this period. This net increase of about four percentage points was seen to have a cons variation across stales and regions.
Which of the following is a conclusion which can be drawn from the facts stated in the above paragraph?
A. Accurate estimates of number of people living below poverty line in India is possible to be made
B. Many expert groups in India are not interested to measure poverty objectively
C. Process of poverty measurement needs to take into account various factors to tackle its dynamic nature
D. People living below poverty line remain in that position for a very long time
E. None of the above
Explaination / Solution:

Process of poverty measurement needs to take into account various factors to tackle its dynamic nature

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Q.5
Directions: Study the following information carefully and answer the questions given below :
Poverty measurement is an unsettled issue, both conceptually and methodologically. Since poverty
is a process as well as outcome; many come out of it while others may be falling into it. The net effect
of these two parallel processes is a proportion commonly identified as the ‘head count ratio’,
but these ratios hide the fundamental dynamism that characterizes poverty in practice. The most recent poverty reestimates by an expert group has also missed the crucial dynamism. In a study conducted
on 13,000 households which represented the entire country in 1993-94 and again on 2004-05, it was found that in the ten-year period 18.2% rural population moved out of poverty whereas another 22.1% fell into it over this period. This net increase of about four percentage points was seen to have a cons variation across stales and regions.
Which of the following is an inference which can be made from the facts stated in the above paragraph?
A. Poverty measurement tools in India are outdated
B. Increase in number of persons falling into poverty varies considerably across the country over a period of time
C. Government of India has stopped measuring poverty related studies
D. People living in rural area are more susceptible to fall into poverty over the time
E. None of the above
Explaination / Solution:

Increase in number of persons falling into poverty varies considerably across the country over a period of time

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Q.6
Directions: In each of the following questions, a statement is followed by two course of action. A course of action is taken for redressal, follow up, etc. Read the statement carefully and answer the question.
Statements: Although there is a much more hands-on approach to teaching in the United States of America, there is a deplorable lack of IQ skill development which leads to a very low level of knowledge among school children about what happens outside of the United States.
Course of Action:
I. There has to be an overhaul of the education system with equal focus on skill development and knowledge development.
II. There needs to be an increase in the number of general knowledge lectures by making them compulsory for all schools.
A. Only course of action I follows
B. Only course of action II follows
C. Either I nor II follows
D. Neither I nor II follows
E. Both I and II follow
Explaination / Solution:

Only I follows: it speaks about knowledge and skill development. IQ and General Knowledge are NOT synonymous. Hence II doesn't follow.

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Q.7
Directions: In each of the following questions, a statement is followed by two course of action. A course of action is taken for redressal, follow up, etc. Read the statement carefully and answer the question.
Statements: Although various efforts have been made over the past 10 years and more recently, over the past couple of years in setting up the infrastructure in various corners of the country to provide electricity, vast stretches of the country still remain devoid of power.
Course of Actions:
I. The infrastructure should not only be installed, but also set to use and maintained and monitored by setting up of a National Energy Inspection body.
II. The government should draft a proposal for 100% FDI in power generation and supply.
A. Only course of action I follows
B. Only course of action II follows
C. Either I nor II follows
D. Neither I nor II follows
E. Both I and II follow
Explaination / Solution:

The first is logical as the statement talks about the setting up of infrastructure which is ineffective in providing power to many areas. The second does not provide a solution as to why it will help overcome the power problem.

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Q.8
Directions: In each of the following questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. These may to cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer as:

Statements
I. The government has recently fixed the fees for professional courses offered by the unaided institutions which are much lower than the fees charged last year.
II. The parents of the aspiring students launched a severe agitation last year protesting against the high fees charged by the unaided institutions.
A. If statement I is the cause and II is its effect.
B. If statement II is the cause and I is its effect.
C. If both the statements I and II are independent causes.
D. If both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes.
E. If both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause.
Explaination / Solution:

II. The parents of the aspiring students launched a severe agitation last year protesting against the high fees charged by the unaided institutions.

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Q.9
Directions: In each of the following questions, a question is followed by information given in three statements. You have to study the question along with the statements and decide the information given in which statement(s) are sufficient to answer the question.

Who is brother-in-law of A?

I. A is married to brother of B. C is daughter of A.
II. D and E are the only brothers of B. B is a female.
III. Only D has no child.
A. The data in statement I and II are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement III are not required to answer the question.
B. The data in statement I, II and III are not sufficient to answer the question.
C. The data in statement II and III are sufficient to answer the question while the data in statement I are not required to answer the question.
D. The data in statement I alone or in statement II alone or in statement III alone are sufficient to answer the question.
E. The data in all the statements I, II and III together are necessary to answer the question.
Explaination / Solution:

From I & II. A is married either to D or to E. From I, II & III. D has no child and A has a daughter. Hence, E is husband of A. D is the brother-in-law of A.

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Q.10
Directions: Each of the questions below consists of a question and two statements labeled I and II given below it. You have to decide whether the data provided in the statements are sufficient to answer the question. Read both the statements and give your answer accordingly:
How many students in standard V of our school do not play chess?
I. No girl has interest in chess.
II. In standard V, there are 40 boys.
A. The data in statement I alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement II alone are not sufficient to answer the question.
B. The data in statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in statement I alone are not sufficient to answer the question.
C. The data in statement I alone or in statement II alone are sufficient to answer the question.
D. The data in both the statements I and II together are not sufficient to answer the question.
E. The data in both the statements I and II together are necessary to answer the question.